IJP German-East European Journalism Scholarship Program 2018 (Up to 3,800 Euros)
Content which was considered harmful to the regime, or to communist ideologies in general, was strictly forbidden. Across the country, people were on the lookout for divergent viewpoints, which were then branded as dangerous to the state. Finally, in the last 66 years , the people of Germany have been secure in their freedom of speech and of the press. Approximately 90 percent of certified journalists were organized within the VDJ.
Solidarity with African liberation movements
Ideologically, was it used to consolidate the idea of socialist journalism. Party members were in all institutions and held key positions e. Within the studies, journalists learned the socialistic ideology of Marxism-Leninism. In , nine operators of a far right radio program were given prison sentences for inciting hatred. Today, our smart phones, laptops, TV, dishwasher, refrigerator, etc.
Neither were regimes that Germans had experienced before. While West Germany adopted the Bonn Constitution in that gave value to human dignity, human rights, and protected liberties for their citizens, East Germany, under Communist rule, restricted the rights of their citizens. Communism was defeated, and the country was reunited. However, reunification took much time and effort, and there were many struggles. Today, Germany is a vibrant and thriving country.
Germany is an important ally of the United States, a world economic leader, and a valued member of the European Union. When the Weimar Constitution was adopted in , it was the first German democratic constitution, and was one of the most progressive constitutions of the time. It contained broad and extensive human rights for its citizens. Liberties of speech, press, and assembly could be defined, limited, or even suspended in difficult times, which were increasing.
Citizens were completely denied all individual freedom and liberty. Millions were arrested without cause and sent to forced labor camps, or concentration camps to be executed. The justification was simply the will of Hitler and his agenda to achieve a society he deemed worthy to be called Germany.
Bertolt Brecht was a leading dramatist in Germany in the s. Born in Bavaria, Brecht moved to Berlin in to pursue his career. In the late s his interest was piqued by the Communist Party, and, although he never officially joined, he studied Karl Marx and sympathized with the cause. Bertolt began to write political plays that criticized the government, including the Weimar Republic and the Nazi regime. He fled for his life in February , and in the book burnings of , his works published up to that time were destroyed.
In Germany was divided into two parts, with two different governments. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority. Basic rights were secondary, and were not intended for the individual, but the collective. In contrast to the freedoms in the Federal Republic of Germany, citizens in the German Democratic Republic could not move freely, go on strike, dissent from the government, speak freely, or assemble.
In addition, citizens of East Germany were not allowed to freely talk with Western tourists or journalists. Today Germany puts limitations on free speech and expression due to tough legislation that makes incitement to violence or hatred, glorification of Nazism, Holocaust denial, defamation of the President, the Federal Republic, the flag, the national anthem, or states of the Republic, a criminal act.
Under a ruling in by the Federal Constitutional Court, political criticism does not qualify as insulting the Republic. The German Criminal Code, section dealing with hate speech, says that those who publicly deny the Holocaust, approve of it, deny it happened, or make it trivial can face up to five years in prison and a fine.
In , nine operators of a far right radio program were given prison sentences for inciting hatred. Germany has also come under attack for banning religious symbols in public workplaces, which greatly affects Muslim women wearing head scarves, which is not allowed under this law. It was under the Nazi regime, with Hitler in control of all Germany, that freedom of the press was a liberty that was completely removed.
Instead, freedom of the press was nonexistent, as all journalism outlets were run by the state for propaganda. In , when Germany was split into two separate nations, there was a vast difference in freedom of the press. Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by radio and motion pictures shall be guaranteed. There shall be no censorship. Article 5, Point 1. And they did everything they could to stop East Germans from talking to West German reporters.
The East German officials seemed to think that Western journalists were all spies. Pleitgen and his crew came up with creative ways to circumvent the Stasi in order to interview East German residents and let their voices be heard, such as stating an incorrect address or sending out decoy news teams. Restrictions became tighter as time went on, making it more and more difficult for Western journalists to gain permission to interview East German residents.
After the fall of Communism and the reunification of Germany under a constitutional democracy, there were differences and challenges that the people of Germany faced for quite some time.
It took a lot of effort to reunite the nation and the peoples, and differences that had to be overcome. One such difference was the role of journalists.
They did not agree with journalists from the former West Germany who readily used illegitimate techniques to gather information.
It seemed that the many years of their government spying on its citizens and a lack of real journalism had a great impact on East German journalists. Reporters Without Borders considers such criteria as: To compare free speech and free press rights in Germany and the United States is to take several things into consideration.
There are degrees to which the two nations are similar, especially in structure, with constitutions and bills of rights, but priorities of rights differ. However, there is a vast difference in the histories of the two nations, and that has a great impact on what laws are put into place.
Germany restricts hate speech, hate crimes, and Holocaust denial, among other things. Bans from publishing or performing were also levied in order to keep the material from being released. Punitive measures were also taken, including arrest or house arrest. Party members could be expelled from the SED, and visa requests were frequently denied to offenders. In the most extreme of circumstances, an offender could be deported, most often to West Germany.
Censorship and punishment, however, were not carried out uniformly. For example, if the creator was a party member of the SED, the work was offered more leniency.
Furthermore, if the creator had been successful, their work was also more easily passed. If he or she had political relationships either the "wrong" or "right" ones , the censorship process was affected as well. Finally, because many regulations were subjective or unclear, a censor who enjoyed a piece might afford it leniency where another would not.
Very often, pieces banned in one area were allowed in others for this reason. Many artists and authors tried to avoid conflicts from the outset, working hard to create works that fit into the guidelines. This phenomenon was called the "shear in the head" [ citation needed ].
Others took the omnipresence of censorship as a challenge. For them, it was stimulus to their creativity. These dissenters, known as "wrap artists", tried to avoid censorship with clever usage of artistic instruments like satire, irony, metaphor, or alienation to say the desired in a different and, for the censor, unrecognizable way, with mixed results. Several times a week, press information was released from the public relations office.
In this press information were guidelines for the press, and how to deal with up-to-date issues. Prescribed terminologies for press , broadcasting , and television were included. The public relation office was authorized to give instructions to the General German Press Agency German: Journalists were seen by the regime as functionaries of the party, not as independent reporters.
The journalistic apprenticeship took place at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig , which had a special program for journalism. If a journalist finished the studies successfully, the journalist became a certified "socialistic journalist".
The selection of potential students was the business of the state. A national governmental pre-selection of candidates was done before the apprenticeship. Within the studies, journalists learned the socialistic ideology of Marxism-Leninism. Only candidates who were considered likely to work to uphold those ideals were certified.
In addition, attempts were made to collectivize journalists within the government. Approximately 90 percent of certified journalists were organized within the VDJ.
The VDJ journalist understood himself as a professional educator of other journalists. The VDJ advised the students in the journalism program of the university in Leipzig. Ideologically, was it used to consolidate the idea of socialist journalism. The VDJ also operated its own school for journalism in Leipzig. This school provided advanced training courses.
The school became very popular with aspiring journalists as a result of the possibility to make contacts through socializing with VDJ members. Amateurs participated in public press work beside the professional journalists. These untrained co-workers were called Volkskorrespondenten, "the people's correspondents". These reporters were honorary workers in press and broadcast, and special journalists of companies.
Having worked as a Volkskorrespondent was looked upon favorably in applications for journalism apprenticeship. Those citizens who participated in the Volkskorrespondent program were more likely to receive admission to the journalism program in Leipzig. Some independent journalists attempted to publish material critical of the government. This was normally unsuccessful, as all publications were censored. Continual or substantial transgressions made a journalist vulnerable to the same punishments as those levied against artists and publishers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Film censorship in East Germany.
Iamges: east german journalists
Its president was Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov.
One caller from West Berlin, for example, reported that he had a good friend in East Berlin and that he "didn't want to tattle on her, for God's sake. This kind of censorship was done and supervised by two governmental organizations which supervised the censorship of literature. There are degrees to which the two nations are similar, especially in structure, with constitutions and bills of rights, but priorities of rights differ.
Views Read Edit View history. Skilled workers journaoists African socialist and Marxist-Leninist states received vocational joournalists in communist East Germany until it was reunified with West Germany. Any idea which encouraged resistance to the government, such as conscientious objectionwas not to be discussed. Indeed, the historians east german journalists that fully 18 percent of the population of Rostock occasionally offered their services as AKP. As time went on, the East German government's restrictions grew tighter and east german journalists.
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