[Abuse of anabolic steroids and its impact on thyroid function].
This however does not necessarily reflect thyroid dysfunction since the physiologically significant free fractions of these hormones typically remain in the normal range. Now that we have reviewed the elements of thyroid physiology and gone over the basic tests to determine thyroid function, we are ready to review the literature regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on the thyroid. Body weight in the T3 plus testosterone-treated subjects declined by only 1. The subjects were using a number of different AAS including testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, and Dianabol, stacking them as bodybuilders typically do. This causes a shift in hormone from the blood to tissues because of a steeper free T4 concentration gradient.
The production within and secretion from the thyroid gland of T4 is under the control of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH , which is secreted from the pituitary gland. No side effects have been reported. Just as the bulk of circulating androgens and estrogens are bound to sex hormone binding globulin SHBG , most of the thyroid hormone in circulation is bound to thyroid binding globulin TBG. In this study, total T3, total T4 and TBG were all depressed during the study period, while T3 resin uptake was elevated. I also mentioned your product to my doctor so he may prescribe your supplement to other thyroid patients as well.
Free T4 dropped marginally but stayed within the normal range. The authors interpreted the data thusly: It is tempting to suggest that decreases in serum TBG led to decreased protein binding of the thyroid hormones, T4 and T3, which is reflected in the elevated T3U-values [T3 resin uptake]. Increased availability of T4 and T3 would then lead to a compensatory decrease in serum TSH, and this, via decreased thyroid stimulation, would further decrease total concentrations of circulating T4 and T3.
The measurements of thyroid function parameters performed support this reasoning. In general our findings suggest that thyroid hormones at the cellular level were not disturbed in our athletes. First, free T4 stayed well within the normal range.
Second, since free T3 was not measured, we do not know if there was any change in free T3, the metabolically active hormone. We see here contradictory findings between the two studies discussed so far as regards TSH levels: Again, quoting from 2: The authors observed that Thyroxine-binding proteins also were decreased in the steroid users, as reflected by the low thyroxine binding index and the decrease in total serum thyroxine levels.
These latter changes had no significant influence on the biological activity of thyroid hormone, however, because the free thyroxine concentration and the thyroid stimulating hormone level were within normal limits. These findings are similar to those of a previous report of decreased thyroxine-binding globulin in men who were using anabolic steroids . The difference between this study and the previous one by Alen is that in 4 free T4 was unchanged, while in 2 there was a drop in free T4.
In the current study the combination of normal free T4 but elevated TSH is suggestive of subclinical hypothyroidism. However, to truly meet the criteria required for that diagnosis TSH would have to be elevated above 5.
Technically, these subjects would be considered euthyroid normal. One criticism of the studies examined thus far is that in each case the subjects used a cocktail of anabolic steroids, including ones that aromatize and others that do not. Might there be a difference in the thyroidal effects of the two classes of drugs?
A study by Lovejoy et al 5 addressed that question as part of research looking at the broader differences between the metabolic effects of oral oxandrolone and parenteral testosterone steroids.
Testosterone aromatizes to estrogen, and estrogen has an opposite effect on TBG from pure androgens: Indeed this was the case in 5. Testosterone had no significant effect on any parameter measured T4; TSH; T3 resin uptake; or free thyroxine index, a calculated measure of free T4. Oxandrolone on the other hand does not aromatize. The oxandrolone group showed a significant decrease in T4 and T3 resin uptake, with no change in TSH. Referring to Table 1 above, we see that the combination of low T4 and low T3 resin uptake is characteristic of hypothyroidism.
This is the conclusion the authors arrived at as well, that the oxandrolone group experienced mild hypothyroidism. Clinically all subjects would be classified as euthyroid. The authors also observed that the Free T4 Index was higher in the oxandrolone group than either the placebo or testosterone groups.
A recent study looked at the effects of short-term methyltestosterone administration to normal subjects 6. Again all hormone values remained within the normal range. The authors speculate that the elevated TSH and free T4 could be due to increased sensitivity of the thyroid to TRH or decreased sensitivity to hormonal feedback, suggesting some form of mild impaired thyroid function.
As with the study by Deyssig, if this functional impairment were real, it would be subclinical and of dubious relevance.
Daly et al speculate that this may be due to the fact that they sampled blood after six days vs 4 weeks and longer in the study by Alen et al. A study by Small et al examined the effects of 10 mg daily of stanozolol, another nonaromatizing steroid, for 14 days in nine healthy subjects 7. The lack of change in TSH or Free T4 indicates that important physiological changes of thyroid function do not occur during treatment with stanozolol. We can summarize the results of the studies for comparative purposes by tabulating the data in Fig 2.
Summary of measured thyroid parameters 0, no change; - unmeasured; Fluoxymesterone at 10 mg per day caused the by now familiar drop in TBG and total thyroid hormone levels with no effect on free parameters 8. The free T4 index was unaltered, which implies that thyroid function was unchanged. Thus far we have looked at studies involving humans.
One study that is often cited in the bodybuilding literature as evidence that trenbolone in particular suppresses thyroid function was done in sheep 9. However, in this study only total T4 was measured, not free T4, so we cannot conclude from this research that bioavailable T3 was affected in any way. Can we make any sense out of the seeming hodgepodge of conflicting data?
The only parameters that are consistent from study to study, where they were measured, are depressed total T3 and T4, and TBG. This however does not necessarily reflect thyroid dysfunction since the physiologically significant free fractions of these hormones typically remain in the normal range. If TBG levels change rapidly, however, a period of disequilibrium will exist during which thyroid function will be perturbed. This causes a shift in hormone from the blood to tissues because of a steeper free T4 concentration gradient.
This increases the degradation rate of hormone in peripheral tissues. Alen et al discuss this possibility, and the process is illustrated graphically here: Free T4 was unchanged in former group, while it was elevated in the latter.
If there is a direct effect of AAS on the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus the studies conducted so far shed little light on the mechanism due to their inconsistent results. After 28 days of bed rest, the men in the T3 group lost an average of 3. Body weight in the T3 plus testosterone-treated subjects declined by only 1. Lean body mass declined by 1. Nevertheless these are still impressive gains considering the subjects were forced to lie in bed for 28 days with no exercise, and considering that no special dietary measures were imposed to preserve or increase muscle mass.
Ingestion of androgenic-anabolic steroids induces mild thyroidal impairment in male body builders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Androgenic-anabolic steroid effects on serum thyroid, pituitary and steroid hormones in athletes. Am J Sports Med. Endocrine effects in female weight lifters who self-administer testosterone and anabolic steroids. In fact, about 13 million Americans experience one or more of the symptoms of problem with thyroid. The function of the thyroid gland is to regulate the speed of the body's metabolism.
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However, to truly meet the criteria required for that diagnosis TSH would have to be elevated above 5.
In this case the pituitary secretes insufficient TSH to stimulate the thyroid, resulting in hypothyroidism with low TSH. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. T3 is considered the physiologically active hormone; in this sense T4 can be thought of as a prohormone.
The Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Thyroid Function by Karl Hoffman One of the more commonly encountered assertions in the bodybuilding literature is that anabolic steroids AAS anavar la pharma thyroid function. Growth hormone, insulin, prolactin and total thyroxine in the plasma of sheep implanted with the anabolic steroid trenbolone acetate alone or with oestradiol. The authors interpreted the data thyroid anabolic steroids Again all hormone values thyroid anabolic steroids within thyeoid normal range. So it is quite possible to have lowered total T3 if TBG is low, but still have normal levels of free T3. This is ananolic conclusion the authors thyroid anabolic steroids at as well, that the oxandrolone group experienced mild hypothyroidism.
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